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Food Sensitivities: Allergies and Intolerances

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...Foods and beverages contain nutrients that are essential to human life, but they also contain elements that, for some individuals, may be harmful to health or even life-threatening. Foods and beverages may cause adverse reactions when...

Lactose Intolerance

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...Lactose is a disaccharide composed of linked molecules of the simple sugars glucose and galactose. Dietary lactose is obtained almost exclusively from milk. Infants and young children digest lactose with an enzyme,lactase, which splits...

Potassium

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...Potassium (K) is found in virtually all aerobic cells and is essential to life. It is the third most abundant element in the human body (after calcium and phosphorus) and the eighth most abundant element in the earth’s crust, with a mass...

Essential Fatty Acids

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...The history of the scientific documentation of the need for fat in the diet began with the early nineteenth-century work of Michel Eugene Chevreul (Mayer and Hanson 1960). He showed that lard contained a solid fat, which he termed stearine,...

Food Allergies

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...Adverse Food Reactions and Allergies An adverse food reaction is defined as any untoward reaction following...

The Cardiovascular System, Coronary Artery Disease, and Calcium: A Hypothesis

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...The Circulation The central organ of the human circulatory system, the heart, must be among the most remarkable creations of nature. In the longest-living individuals, it works continuously...

Food-Borne Infection

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...Numerous infectious diseases are acquired by the ingestion of contaminated food, milk, or water. Such illnesses have a worldwide distribution, although, predictably, the incidence is greatest in those countries where deficiencies exist...

Infection and Nutrition: Synergistic Interactions

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...The interactions of malnutrition and infection are synergistic, with each modifying the other in ways that cannot be predicted from studying just one condition or the other (Scrimshaw, Taylor, and Gordon 1968). The superimposed infection...

Nutrition and Mental Development

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...Most research on nutrition and human mental development has focused on protein–energy malnutrition (PEM), which consists of deficits in energy and protein as well as other nutrients (Golden 1988). But there is also an extensive literature...

Muscovy Ducks

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...Of the two species of domesticated anatines, the Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) is larger, less vocal, and characterized by a fleshy protuberance on the head of the male. It is a duck of tropical American origin, whose wild ancestors...