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  • 1900-1999
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Essential Fatty Acids

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...The history of the scientific documentation of the need for fat in the diet began with the early nineteenth-century work of Michel Eugene Chevreul (Mayer and Hanson 1960). He showed that lard contained a solid fat, which he termed stearine,...

Vitamin E

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...As any nutritional text dated prior to 1970 will indicate, vitamin E has not received much respect from nutritionists. In such texts it is often placed after vitamin K, in the miscellaneous category. This is because it took a good 40 years...

Other Trace Elements

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...Beginning early in the twentieth century, scientists were able to qualitatively detect small amounts of several elements in living organisms. In reports, these elements were often described as being present in “traces” or “trace amounts...

Zinc

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...In 1869, J. Raulin showed for the first time that zinc is a growth factor for Aspergilus niger. Then, in 1926, it was discovered that zinc is essential for higher plants (Sommer and Lipman 1926). The importance of zinc in the growth...

Calcium

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...This chapter deals with the history of calcium and its metabolism in adult humans. It should be read in conjunction with Chapter IV.D.4 on osteoporosis, which contains a further discussion of calcium requirements and the effects...

Vitamin D

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...Definition and Nomenclature Vitamin D is a fat-soluble substance required...

Vitamin B Complex: Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Pyridoxine, Cobalamin, Folic Acid

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...The history of the discovery of the B vitamins includes both the recognition that particular diseases can result from dietary inadequacies and the subse quent isolation of specific...

Bar Chum

John F. Mariani

John Mariani began his career as a journalist at New York magazine in 1973. Since then, he has become one of America’s premier food writers. He is a columnist for Esquire and Bloomberg News, was nominated three times for the James Beard Journalism Award, and is the author of several highly regarded books on food, including Mariani’s Coast-to-Coast Dining Guide, America Eats Out (winner of the IACP Julia Child Cookbook Award for reference), and, most recently, How Italian Food Conquered the World. He is also the author of The Dictionary of Italian Food and Drink and editor of Italian Cuisine: Basic Cooking Techniques, the primary Italian cooking textbook of the Culinary Institute of America. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink

Bloomsbury USA, 2013

Book chapter

...Bartender slang for snack foods served at a bar, usually free with drinks. The term dates in print to 1991...

Sodium and Hypertension

The Cambridge World History of Food

© Cambridge University Press, 2000

Encyclopedia entry

...Historically, dietary salt (sodium chloride) has been obtained by numerous methods, including solar evaporation of seawater, the boiling down of water from brine springs, and the mining of “rock” salt (Brisay and Evans 1975). In fact,R. P...

Citizen Burger

Carol J. Adams

Carol J. Adams is the author of numerous books, including the seminal The Sexual Politics of Meat (Bloomsbury Revelations). She is the co-editor of several path-breaking anthologies, including most recently Ecofeminism: Feminist Intersections with Other Animals and the Earth (co-edited with Lori Gruen, Bloomsbury, 2014) and The Carol J. Adams Reader (2016). Her work is the subject of two recent anthologies, Defiant Daughters: 21 Women of Art, Activism, Animals, and The Sexual Politics of Meat and The Art of the Animal: 14 Women Artists Explore The Sexual Politics of Meat, in which a new generation of feminists, artists, and activists respond to Adams' groundbreaking work. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Burger

Bloomsbury Academic, 2018

Book chapter

...Campaigning for President in 1992, William Jefferson Clinton proved himself to be the citizen’s candidate by his penchant for hamburgers. Burgher: citizen of the city. There he would be, according to the press, stopping in for hamburgers...