What do new technologies taste like? A growing number of contemporary artists are working with food, live materials and scientific processes, in order to explore and challenge the ways in which manipulation of biological materials informs our cooking and eating. ‘Bioart’, or biological art, uses biotech methods to manipulate living systems, from tissues to ecologies. While most critiques of bioart emphasise the influences of new media, digital media, and genetics, this book takes a bold, alternative approach. Bioart Kitchen explores a wide spectrum of seemingly unconnected subjects, which, when brought together, offer a more inclusive, expansive history of bioart, namely: home economics; the feminist art of the 1970s; tissue culture methodologies; domestic computing; and contemporary artistic engagements with biotechnology.
This collection of essays comprises a groundbreaking volume, as it is the first to propose a critical, comparative framework for the study of modern foodways both inside and outside of Asia, through the crucial lens of culinary nationalism. With “culinary nationalism” defined as a process in flux, diametrically opposed to the limited concept of national cuisine, the contributors call for explicit critical comparisons of cases of culinary nationalism within regions, in order to recognize regional patterns of modern culinary development. In essence, the formation of modern cuisine is revealed to be a process that takes place around the world, in different forms and periods, and is not exclusive to current Eurocentric models. Instead, the essays set out a fresh agenda for thinking about future food studies scholarship through the comparative consideration of key themes: gender, cooking, and consumption; the cultivation of taste and authority; the reinterpretation of culinary traditions; inter/national cuisines; hunger, violence, nation; and Asia as culinary imaginary.
With fourteen original contributions from a range of established food studies scholars, including Katarzyna J. Cwiertka, Eric C. Rath, James Farrer, Jean Duruz, and Daniel E. Bender, and a foreword and afterword from Krishnendu Ray and James L. Watson, respectively, this volume is a vital contribution to the study of food in Asia. The interdisciplinary, and broadly comparative, scope of the chapters ranges across historical and contemporary culinary geographies of East, South and Southeast Asia, drawing from history, sociology, anthropology, geography, economics, literary studies, and film and cultural studies.
Dirt - and our rituals to eradicate it - are as much a part of our everyday lives as eating, breathing and sleeping. Yet this very fact means that we seldom question what we mean by dirt. What do our attitudes to dirt and cleanliness tell us about ourselves and the societies we live in? This innovative work exposes the interests which underlie everyday conceptions of dirt and reveals how our ideas about it are intimately bound up with issues of race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexuality and the body. Exploring a wide variety of settings - domestic, urban and rural - it reveals how attitudes to dirt and cleanliness become manifest in surprisingly diverse ways, including the rituals of death and burial; architectural design aesthetics; urban infrastructure and regeneration; film symbolism; and consumer attitudes to food.
Jukka Gronow and Lotte Holm
The chapters in this volume concentrate on the mundane and ordinary eating practices of the everyday, showing how these are linked to change in modern society. The contributors present a collection of systematic empirical results from a unique study based on representative samples of four Nordic populations – Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden – conducted at two time points, 15 years apart. The results of this unprecedented longitudinal survey leads the contributors to question many commonly held beliefs about the presumed and feared collapse of the traditional eating habits, family meals, and regular meal patterns.
As the social organization of eating is in many ways related to developments in other social institutions such as family, education, and work, chapters provide interesting insights into contemporary society, with key topics selected for scrutiny including gender, food types, diet and health, and cooking practices. Additionally, the chapters highlight changes in the gendering of food practices and signs of increasing informality around meals.
It can no longer be said that we are just what we eat. In the contested sphere of gastronomy divided between the golden arches of McDonalds and the prized stars of Michelin where personal identity is expressed through a frenetic quest for socially-approved tastes and distinctions, where, when, how and with whom we eat has become just as fundamental in defining who we are. In this follow-on to her classic 1989 work Dining Out: A Sociology of Modern Manners, Joanne Finkelstein takes a fragment of social life, dining out in restaurants, and uses it to examine the nature and meaning of manners and social relations in the modern world. In Fashioning Appetite, the restaurant becomes a liminal space in which public and privte boundaries are constantly renegotiated, in which our personal celebrations and seductions are conducted within full view of the next table, and where eating alone has become a perilous social minefield. When food is fetishized ad identity becomes a capitalist commodity, the experience of the restaurant transforms appetite into both a pleasure and a torment where being satisfied with one's meal is also about being satisfied with oneself.
Applying new research in emotional capitalism to popular culture's pervasive images of conspicuous consumption, Finkelstein builds a cultural portrait in which every forfkful is weighted with meaning.
In 1842, the average life expectancy for a labourer in Liverpool was just 15 years. The condition of public health in Britain during the nineteenth century from poor sanitation, housing and nutrition resulted in repeated outbreaks of typhus and cholera and prompted the government to usher in an era of welfare and state intervention to improve the health of the nation.The establishment of the National Training School of Cookery in London in 1873 was part of this wave of reform. The school trained cookery teachers to be instructors in schools, hospitals and the armed services, replacing the nineteenth-century laissez-faire attitude to nutrition and forcing health and diet to become public issues. Here Yuriko Akiyama reveals for the first time how cookery came to be seen as an important part of medical care and diet, revolutionising the nation's health. She assesses the practical impact of nutrition in hospitals, schools and the military and explores the many challenges and struggles faced by those who undertook work to educate the nation in the complex areas of sanitation, medicine, food supply and general habits.
Drawing together the latest research and a range of case studies, Henry Buller and Emma Roe guide readers on a fascinating journey through animal welfare issues ‘from farm to fork’. Animal welfare offers a vital lens through which to explore the economies, culture and politics of food. This is the first text to provide a much-needed overview of this strongly debated area of the food industry.
Buller and Roe explore how animal welfare is defined, advocated, assessed and implemented by farmers, veterinarians, distributors, and consumers. From the practicalities and limitations of establishing a basic standard of care for livestock, to the ethics of selling welfare as a product in the supermarket, this indispensable book offers empirical insights into a key aspect of the global food system: the lives, deaths, and consumption of animals which are at the core of the food chain. It is a must-read for students and scholars of animal welfare, agro-food studies and human-animal relations in disciplines such as geography, politics, anthropology, and sociology as well as animal behaviour, psychology and veterinary science.
Food, Festival and Religion explores how communities in northern Italy find a restorative sense of place through foodways, costuming and other forms of materiality. Festivals examined by the author vary geographically from the northern rural corners of Italy to the fashionable heart of urban Milan. The origins of these lived religious events range from Christian to vernacular Italian witchcraft and contemporary Paganism, which is rapidly growing in Italy.
Francesca Ciancimino Howell demonstrates that during ritualized occasions the sacred is located within the mundane. She argues that communal feasting, pilgrimage, rituals and costumed events can represent forms of lived religious materiality. Building on the work of scholars including Foucault, Grimes and Ingold, Howell offers a theoretical ‘Scale of Engagement’ which further tests the interfaces between and among the materialities of place, food, ritual and festivals and provides a widely-applicable model for analyzing grassroots events and community initiatives.
Through extensive ethnographic research and fieldwork data, this book demonstrates that popular Italian festivals can be ritualized, liminal spaces, contributing greatly to the fields of religious, performance and ritual studies.
Beth A. Dixon
Beth A. Dixon explores how food justice impacts on human lives. Stories and reports in national media feature on the one hand hunger, famine and food scarcity, and on the other, rising rates of morbid obesity and health issues. Other stories—food justice narratives—illustrate how to correct the ethical damage created by the first type of story. They detail the nature of oppression and structural injustice, and show how these conditions constrain choices, truncate moral agency, and limit opportunities to live well.
With stories from national media, food and farming memoirs, and scholarly ethnographies, Dixon reveals how different food narratives are constructed, and enable identification of just solutions to issues surrounding food insecurity, farm labor, and the lived experience of obesity. Drawing on Aristotle’s concept of ethical perception, Dixon demonstrates how we can use narratives to enhance our understanding and ethical competence about injustice in relation to food.
Food Justice and Narrative Ethics is a must-read for students of food studies, philosophy, and media studies.
With her new book, Italian Food Activism in Urban Sardinia, cultural anthropologist Carole Counihan makes a significant contribution to understanding the growing global movement for food democracy.
Providing a detailed ethnographic case study from Cagliari, the capital of the Italian island-region of Sardinia, she draws upon Sardinians’ own descriptions of their actions and motivations to change their food as they pursue grassroots alternatives to the agro-industrial food system through solidarity buying groups (GAS), organic and urban agriculture, alternative restaurants, and farm-to-school programs. They link their activism to the sensory and emotional resonance of food and its nostalgic connections to place, tradition, and culture. They stress the importance of education through experience, and they build relationships and networks through workshops, farm visits, and commensality.
The book focuses on three key themes to emerge in interviews with Cagliari food activists: the significance of territorio (or place), the importance of taste, and the role of education. By exploring these areas of concern, Counihan uncovers key tensions in consumption as a force for change, in individual vs. group actions, and in political and economic power relations, which are of crucial importance to wider global efforts to promote food democracy.
Roblyn Rawlins and David Livert
With a vast selection of foods and thousands of recipes to choose from, how do home cooks in America decide what to cook – and what does their cooking mean to them?
Answering this question, Making Dinner is an empirical study of home cooking in the United States. Drawing on a combination of research methods, which includes in-depth interviews with over 50 cooks and cooking journals documenting over 300 home-cooked dinners, Roblyn Rawlins and David Livert explore how American home cooks think and feel about themselves, food, and cooking. Their findings reveal distinct types of cook—the family-first cook, the traditional cook, and the keen cook—and demonstrate how personal identities, family relationships, ideologies of gender and parenthood, and structural constraints all influence what ends up on the plate.
Rawlins and Livert reveal research that fills the data gap on practices of home cooking in everyday life. This is an important contribution to fields such as food studies, health and nutrition, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, gender studies, and American studies.
Making Taste Public takes an ethnographic approach to show how social relations shape – and are shaped by – the taste of food. Recognizing that different cultures have different taste preferences and flavour principles embedded in cuisine, editors Carole Counihan and Susanne Højlund ask how these differences are generated. The editors have compiled 14 chapters to show how specific influences become a part of our sensorial apparatus and identity through shared experiences of making, eating, and talking about food.
Using case studies from Asia, Europe and America, the book presents a theory of how taste is made public through everyday practices. The authors are exploring how place, production methods and cooking techniques create tastes. They discuss the criteria determining good and bad tastes, and how tastes and memories evolve over time. Subjects such as how values can be embedded in taste, and the role of taste education in food movements, homes, and schools are explored. The different chapters examine definitions and mobilizations of taste in different institutions, public places, and regions around the world to reveal ethnographic understandings of how people learn, experience, and share taste.
With contributions spanning the Solomon Islands, Denmark, Japan, Canada, France, the USA, and Italy, Making Taste Public is a fascinating account of how our sense of taste is continuously shaped and re-shaped in relation to social and cultural context, societal and environmental premises. The book will interest anyone studying anthropology, sociology, food studies, sensory studies and human geography.
Nineteenth-century Britain was one of the birthplaces of modern vegetarianism in the west, and was to become a reform movement attracting thousands of people. From the Vegetarian Society's foundation in 1847, men, women and their families abandoned conventional diet for reasons as varied as self-advancement, personal thrift, dissatisfaction with medical orthodoxy and repugnance for animal cruelty. They joined in the pursuit of a perfect society in which food reform combined with causes such as socialism and land reform, stimulated by the concern that carnivorism was in league with alcoholism and bellicosity. James Gregory provides a rich exploration of the movement, with its often colourful and sometimes eccentric leaders and grass-roots supporters. He explores the rich culture of branch associations, competing national societies, proliferating restaurants and food stores and experiments in vegetarian farms and colonies. “Of Victorians and Vegetarians” examines the wider significance of Victorian vegetarians, embracing concerns about gender and class, national identity, race and empire and religious authority.
Vegetarianism embodied the Victorians' complicated response to modernity in its hostility to aspects of the industrial world's exploitation of technology, rejecting entrepreneurial attempts to create the foods and substitute artefacts of the future. Hostile, like the associated anti-vivisectionists and anti-vaccinationists, to a new ‘priesthood’ of scientists, vegetarians defended themselves through the new sciences of nutrition and chemistry. “Of Victorians and Vegetarians” uncovers who the vegetarians were, how they attempted to convert their fellow Britons (and the world beyond) to their ‘bloodless diet’ and the response of contemporaries in a variety of media and genres. Through a close study of the vegetarian periodicals and organisational archives, extensive biographical research and a broader examination of texts relating to food, dietary reform and allied reform movements, James Gregory provides us with the first fascinating foray into the impact of vegetarianism on the Victorians, the history of animal welfare, reform movements and food history.
This book presents an authoritative and comprehensive survey of human practice in relation to other animals, together with a Christian ethical analysis building on the theological account of animals which David Clough developed in On Animals Volume I: Systematic Theology (2012). It argues that a Christian understanding of other animals has radical implications for their treatment by humans, with the human use and abuse of non-human animals for food the most urgent immediate priority.
Following an introduction examining the task of theological ethics in relation to non-human animals and the way it relates to other accounts of animal ethics, this book surveys and assess the use humans make of other animals for food, for clothing, for labour, as research subjects, for sport and entertainment, as pets or companions, and human impacts on wild animals. The result is both a state-of-the-art account of what humans are doing to other animals, and a persuasive argument that Christians in particular have strong faith-based reasons to acknowledge the significance of the issues raised and change their practice in response.
Corfu, Kefalonia, Zakynthos and the other Ionian islands are home to one of the finest cuisines of the Mediterranean. The stamping-ground of Captain Corelli and Lawrence Durrell, the Ionians have always held a particular, almost mystical, fascination for visitors, and, for many of the thousands who travel to the region each year, it is the special nature of Ionian cooking that forms an essential and unforgettable part of their experience. The recipes in "Prospero's Kitchen" come mostly from family notebooks handed down through the generations and reflect the cosmopolitan nature of Ionian cuisine. Together, they provide a unique and tantalising taste of the variety of Ionian cuisine. Featuring over 150 easy-to-follow recipes as well as fascinating information on Ionian cooking and customs, beautiful photographs and original illustrations, "Prospero's Kitchen" is an essential kitchen addition for anyone with a passion for the beautiful and lyrical Ionian islands.
David Gentilcore and Matthew Smith
Proteins, Pathologies and Politics presents an international and historical approach to dietary change and health, contrasting current concerns with how issues such as diabetes, cancer, vitamins, sugar and fat, and food allergies were perceived in the 19th and 20th centuries. Though what we eat and what we shouldn’t eat has become a topic of increased scrutiny in the current century, the link between dietary innovation and health/disease is not a new one. From new fads in foodstuffs, through developments in manufacturing and production processes, to the inclusion of additives and evolving agricultural practices changing diets, changes often promised better health only to become associated with the opposite.
With contributors including Peter Scholliers, Francesco Buscemi, Clare Gordon Bettencourt and Kirsten Gardner, this collection comprises the best scholarship on how we have perceived diet to affect health. The chapters consider:
the politics and economics of dietary change
the historical actors involved in dietary innovation and the responses to it
the extent that our dietary health itself a cultural construct, or even a product of history
This is a fascinating and varied study of how our diets have been shaped and influenced by perceptions of health and will be of great value to students of history, food history, nutrition science, politics and sociology.
The traditional image of New Zealand is one of verdant landscapes with sheep grazing on lush green pastures. Yet this landscape is almost entirely an artificial creation. As Britain became increasingly reliant on its overseas territories for supplies of food and raw material, so all over the Empire indigenous plants were replaced with English grasses to provide the worked up products of pasture - meat, butter, cheese, wool, and hides. In New Zealand this process was carried to an extreme, with forest cleared and swamps drained. How, why and with what consequences did the transformation of New Zealand into these empires of grass occur? Seeds of Empire provides both an exciting appraisal of New Zealand's environmental history and a long overdue exploration of the significance of grass in the processes of sowing empire.
This book examines the history, archaeology, and anthropology of Mexican taste. Contributors analyze how the contemporary identity of Mexican food has been created and formed through concepts of taste, and how this national identity is adapted and moulded through change and migration. Drawing on case studies with a focus on Mexico, but also including Israel and the United States, the contributors examine how local and national identities; the global market of gastronomic tourism; and historic transformations in trade, production, the kitchen space, and appliances; shape the taste of Mexican food and drink.
Chapters include an exploration of the popularity of Mexican beer in the United States by Jeffrey Pilcher, an examination of the experience of eating chapulines in Oaxaca by Paulette Schuster and Jeffrey H. Cohen, an investigation into transformations of contemporary Yucatecan gastronomy by Steffan Igor Ayora-Diaz, and an afterword from Richard Wilk. Together, the contributors demonstrate how taste itself is shaped through a history of social and cultural practices. In addition, they look at how culinary and gastronomic experience is tied to issues of identity politics, as well as to the global expansion of local cuisines.
What do deep fried mars bars, cod, and Bulgarian yoghurt have in common? Each have become symbolic foods with specific connotations, located to a very specific place and country.
This book explores the role of food in society as a means of interrogating the concept of the nation-state and its sub-units, and reveals how the nation-state in its various disguises has been and is changing in response to accelerated globalisation. The chapters investigate various stages of national food: its birth, emergence, and decline, and why sometimes no national food emerges. By collecting and analysing a wide range of case studies from countries including Portugal, Mexico, the USA, Bulgaria, Scotland, and Israel, the book illustrates ways in which various social forces work together to shape social and political realities concerning food.
The contributors, hailing from anthropology, history, sociology and political science, investigate the significance of specific food cultures, cuisines, dishes, and ingredients, and their association with national identity. In so doing, it becomes clearer how these two things interact, and demonstrates the scope and direction of the current study of food and nationalism.